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The Transformation of the World

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The Transformation of the World

 

The Transformation of the World

 

A Global History of the Nineteenth Century

Jürgen Osterhammel

Translated by Patrick Camiller

PRINCETON UNIVERSITY PRESS

Princeton and Oxford

First published in Germany by C. H. Beck under the title
Die Verwandlung der Welt
© Verlag C. H. Beck oHG, München 2009

English translation copyright © 2014 by Princeton University Press
Published by Princeton University Press, 41 William Street,
Princeton, New Jersey 08540
In the United Kingdom: Princeton University Press, 6 Oxford Street,
Woodstock, Oxfordshire OX20 1TW

press.princeton.edu

Jacket illustration: Harbor at Shanghai, China, 1875, © Getty Images. Cover design by Faceout Studio, Charles Brock.

All Rights Reserved

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Osterhammel, Jürgen.

[Verwandlung der Welt. English]

The transformation of the world : a global history of the nineteenth century / Jürgen Osterhammel.

pages cm. — (America in the world)

“First published in Germany by C.H. Beck under the title Die Verwandlung der Welt, Verlag C.H. Beck oHG, Munchen 2009.”

Includes bibliographical references and indexes.

ISBN 978-0-691-14745-1 (hardback : acid-free paper) 1. History, Modern—19th century.

I. Title.

D358.O8813 2014

909.81—dc23

2013025754

British Library Cataloging-in-Publication Data is available

The translation of this work was funded by Geisteswissenschaften International-Translation Funding for Humanities and Social Sciences from Germany, a joint initiative of the Fritz Thyssen Foundation, the German Federal Foreign Office, the collecting society VG WORT and the Börsenverein des Deutschen Buchhandels (German Publishers & Booksellers Association)

This book has been composed in Garamond Premier Pro

Printed on acid-free paper. ∞

Printed in the United States of America

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

For Sabine and Philipp Dabringhaus
_______________________________________________

CONTENTS

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Preface       
xi

Introduction       
xv

PART ONE: APPROACHES

 

I 

Memory and Self-Observation: The Perpetuation of the Nineteenth Century       
3

1 Visibility and Audibility       
5

2 Treasuries of Memory and Knowledge       
7

3 Observation, Description, Realism       
17

4 Numbers       
25

5 News       
29

6 Photography       
39

II 

Time: When Was the Nineteenth Century?       
45

1 Chronology and the Coherence of the Age       
45

2 Calendar and Periodization       
49

3 Breaks and Transitions       
52

4 The Age of Revolution, Victorianism, Fin de Siècle       
58

5 Clocks and Acceleration       
67

III 

Space: Where Was the Nineteenth Century?       
77

1 Space and Time       
77

2 Metageography: Naming Spaces       
78

3 Mental Maps: The Relativity of Spatial Perspective       
86

4 Spaces of Interaction: Land and Sea       
94

5 Ordering and Governing Space       
104

6 Territoriality, Diaspora, Borders       
107

PART TWO: PANORAMAS

 

IV 

Mobilities       
117

1 Magnitudes and Tendencies       
117

2 Population Disasters and the Demographic Transition       
124

3 The Legacy of Early Modern Migrations: Creoles and Slaves       
128

4 Penal Colony and Exile       
133

5 Ethnic Cleansing       
139

6 Internal Migration and the Changing Slave Trade       
144

7 Migration and Capitalism       
154

8 Global Motives       
164

V 

Living Standards: Risk and Security in Material Life       
167

1 The Standard of Living and the Quality of Life       
167

2 Life Expectancy and “
Homo hygienicus
”       
170

3 Medical Fears and Prevention       
178

4 Mobile Perils, Old and New       
185

5 Natural Disasters       
197

6 Famine       
201

7 Agricultural Revolutions       
211

8 Poverty and Wealth       
216

9 Globalized Consumption       
226

VI 

Cities: European Models and Worldwide Creativity       
241

1 The City as Norm and Exception       
241

2 Urbanization and Urban Systems       
249

3 Between Deurbanization and Hypergrowth       
256

4 Specialized Cities, Universal Cities       
264

5 The Golden Age of Port Cities       
275

6 Colonial Cities, Treaty Ports, Imperial Metropolises       
283

7 Internal Spaces and Undergrounds       
297

8 Symbolism, Aesthetics, Planning       
311

VII 

Frontiers: Subjugation of Space and Challenges to Nomadic Life       
322

1 Invasions and Frontier Processes       
322

2 The North American West       
331

3 South America and South Africa       
347

4 Eurasia       
356

5 Settler Colonialism       
368

6 The Conquest of Nature: Invasions of the Biosphere       
375

VIII 

Imperial Systems and Nation-States: The Persistence of Empires       
392

1 Great-Power Politics and Imperial Expansion       
392

2 Paths to the Nation-State       
403

3 What Holds Empires Together?       
419

4 Empires: Typology and Comparisons       
429

5 Central and Marginal Cases       
434

6 Pax Britannica       
450

7 Living in Empires       
461

IX 

International Orders, Wars, Transnational Movements: Between Two World Wars       
469

1 The Thorny Path to a Global System of States       
469

2 Spaces of Power and Hegemony       
475

3 Peaceful Europe, Wartorn Asia and Africa       
483

4 Diplomacy as Political Instrument and Intercultural Art       
493

5 Internationalisms and the Emergence of Universal Norms       
505

X 

Revolutions: From Philadelphia via Nanjing to Saint Petersburg       
514

1 Revolutions—from Below, from Above, from Unexpected Directions       
514

2 The Revolutionary Atlantic       
522

3 The Great Turbulence in Midcentury       
543

4 Eurasian Revolutions, Fin de Siècle       
558

XI 

The State: Minimal Government, Performances, and the Iron Cage       
572

1 Order and Communication: The State and the Political       
572

2 Reinventions of Monarchy       
579

3 Democracy       
593

4 Bureaucracies       
605

5 Mobilization and Discipline       
616

6 Self-Strengthening: The Politics of Peripheral Defensive       
625

7 State and Nationalism       
629

PART THREE: THEMES

 

XII 

Energy and Industry: Who Unbound Prometheus, When, and Where?       
637

1 Industrialization       
638

2 Energy Regimes: The Century of Coal       
651

3 Paths of Economic Development and Nondevelopment       
658

4 Capitalism       
667

XIII 

Labor: The Physical Basis of Culture       
673

1 The Weight of Rural Labor       
675

2 Factory, Construction Site, Office       
685

3 Toward Emancipation: Slaves, Serfs, Peasants       
697

4 The Asymmetry of Wage Labor       
706

XIV 

Networks: Extension, Density, Holes       
710

1 Communications       
712

2 Trade       
724

3 Money and Finance       
730

XV 

Hierarchies: The Vertical Dimension of Social Space       
744

1 Is a Global Social History Possible?       
744

2 Aristocracies in (Moderate) Decline       
750

3 Bourgeois and Quasi-bourgeois       
761

XVI 

Knowledge: Growth, Concentration, Distribution       
779

1 World Languages       
781

2 Literacy and Schooling       
788

3 The University as a Cultural Export from Europe       
798

4 Mobility and Translation       
808

5 Humanities and the Study of the Other       
814

XVII 

Civilization and Exclusion       
826

1 The “Civilized World” and Its “Mission”       
826

2 Slave Emancipation and White Supremacy       
837

3 Antiforeignism and “Race War”       
855

4 Anti-Semitism       
865

XVIII 

Religion       
873

1 Concepts of Religion and the Religious       
873

2 Secularization       
880

3 Religion and Empire       
887

4 Reform and Renewal       
894

Conclusion: The Nineteenth Century in History       
902

1 Self-Diagnostics       
902

2 Modernity       
904

3 Again: The Beginning or End of a Century       
906

4 Five Characteristics of the Century       
907

Abbreviations       
921

Notes       
923

Bibliography       
1021

Index       
1119

BOOK: The Transformation of the World
6.58Mb size Format: txt, pdf, ePub
ads

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